I don’t remember the ‘hi’ from before which was why I got confused. It’s also the one Katharevousa was largely based on. Originally, it was widely used both for literary and official purposes, though seldom in daily language. Yes, of course. Medieval Greek texts and documents of the Byzantine Empirewere almost always written in conservative literary Greek. ", The controversy went on until the Colonels' junta took over the country on 21 April 1967 and finally turned Greeks off of the ridiculous barrack­room katharevousa they were harangued with day and night. Indeed, I’d go as far as to suggest that every society is segregated along linguistic barriers; I’m thinking of teenagers here who traditionally develop ways of communication that exclude “grownups”. Thank you. See more. Good detail for world-building. Required fields are marked *. What an interesting article! This is not shared with third parties. On the one hand were the 'purifiers' - the most renowned of which was Adamantios Korais (1748-1833) - and on the other the 'demoticists' supporting the language of the 'demos' (lay people) called 'demotiki'. This post is to allow for voting for the creation of a Katharevousa course in Duolingo. The Anglo-Saxon languages originated as Germanic ones, of course, but also have been heavily influenced by Latin. The association between the hated junta and Katharevousa proved to be the final stroke against it, and the Socialists (PASOK) were able to pass a series of laws collectively referred to as “linguistic reformation” in favour of using Demotiki as the state’s official language. No this and no that because…same reasons. Sigh… Yes, plus too many subjects are left out of Greek classrooms for fear of offending one group or another. The picture below dates from November 8th, 1901, when 11 people died and 80 were injured during street fights for and against the translation of the Gospels into Demotiko. Diglossias can be stable for centuries, with a High variant that nobody speaks natively, and that can be at times artificial: just ask Arabic. Very interesting. We don’t even say Merry Christmas anymore because newcomers are offended or can be because it is contrary to their religious beliefs. Language has always been used to reinforce group cohesion. He thought, professor Mackridge pointed out, that Greek needed "correcting" according to the rules of Ancient Greek rather than according to its own internal rules. "In my own personal view," professor Mackridge said at the end of his atticle in the Athens News, "a recognition that Modern Greek is a language in itself, free of dependence on Ancient Greek, would be a genuine sign of pride and confidence a modern Greek identity. I found it fascinating, though sorry to hear some of it ended with people dying. Part of this reformation referred to the use of a single dot above vowels to indicate intonation (monotonic), replacing the Hellenistic usage of half a dozen different signs (polytonic). Your support means a lot. I’m worried that a fifth Greek got lost in the lists. Absolutely loved this article! Demotic Greek (language of the people) is the modern vernacular form of the Greek language, and refers particularly to the form of the language that evolved naturally from ancient Greek, in opposition to the artificially archaic Katharevousa, which was the official standard until 1976. I love history. I learned there was formal Latin, clergy Latin, and common Latin. Attic vs. Koine: Controversy in the Greek Language. Following Greece’s 1821 war of independence, a number of scholars led by Adamantios Korais rejected these influences and argued in favor of a return to a more classical language. It’d almost be funny if people didn’t end up dead! If that’s the case, then it’s a fairly common name, although not as common as, say, Maria or Eleni. Although Katharevousa was introduced relatively recently, the concept of a conservative literary version of Greek had been present since the times of Koine Greek. It's all demotic Greek to us The Greek translation for Lorelei is probably Δάφνη, or Daphne, as laurel/bay is translated into Greek. You’d say παρακαλώ in this case. share. Funny. And the comments are as interesting as the post! A priest cast with its own language, perhaps? Examples of texts written in vernacular Greek prior … Linguistic purism, he argued, acted as a distraction from Greece's mission. ), katharevousa won insofar as it continues to influence spoken and written Greek. Whose country is it again? Lol – no, it’s been there from the start. It became the official Modern Greek in 1976 when Katharevousa was replaced, and was written in polytonic script until 1982, and in monotonic script after 1982. Demotic Greek (Greek: δημοτική [γλώσσα] [ðimotiˈci], "[language] of the people") or dimotiki is the modern vernacular form of the Greek language.The term has been in use since 1818. Synonyms . In 1888, Yannis Psycharis, a Greek linguist teaching in Paris, launched a polemical book called My Journey. Katharevusa was used in government and judiciary documents as well as in most newspapers and technical publications. In Canada, we are called the melting pot. ", As Mackridge explained in an article published in the Paideia supplement of the Athens News on 9 September 2005, "Korais had to deal with opposition from two sides: the archaists who wanted to impose Ancient Greek as the language of the state and education, and the vernacularists who argued that the official language should be as close as possible to the modem spoken language." Katharevousa (Greek: Καθαρεύουσα, (Modern Greek: /kaθaˈrevusa/, lit. Which probably explains why you still love the country… . It seems that in the last three years interest in the language has been stimulated by the successful Athens Olympics of 2004 and also by Greece's enhanced role in southeastern Europe. In this context Dimotiki describes the specific non-standardized vernacularforms of Greek used by the vast majority of Greeks t… Once political factions started taking sides, the passions surrounding the two versions of the language became so strong, that in the late 19th/early 20th century their respective defenders actually fought in the streets, triggering, quite literally, a minor civil war. In January 1976, by government order, it became the official language of the state, replacing Katharevusa Greek (q.v.) The Homeric language, on the other hand, is a really tough nut to crack, at least for me. This is the language as it had been shaped by the centuries, acknowledging and accepting the various influences, from the Byzantine to the Ottoman empire. As always, Wikipedia comes to the rescue. Great post. In 1976 it was replaced by Demotic Greek as the official language. . Juliet C.B. Same in schools. Interested in finding out more about Katharevousa? Nowadays you can still hear Katharevousa at church, where some priest or other will occasionally give a speech in a bastardized version of it. Think of demotic as standard spoken Greek and Katharevousa as the Greek equivalent of Nynorsk only sort of less artificial. One thing rather delighted me – I’ve not met anyone yet with the name of Lorelei so I had no idea it was a common Greek name. I wonder if a similar language barrier formed prior to the French Revolution. I’m a bit of a history buff, and I’ve never heard this story. The two complemented each other in a typical example of diglossia until the resolution of the Greek language question in favour of Demotic. Lol – Lorelei is American, not Greek! Also, the Koine is fairly similar to Katharevousa, as Korais based the latter on it. Pity, isn’t it? I learned similar things about Latin while doing book research. Originally, it was widely used both for literary and official purposes, though seldom in daily language. My bilingual status makes me uniquely qualified to describe the unusually passionate relationship Greeks have with their language. I find it quite similar to the Classical one, at least as spoken by Lysias. It was the language of the streets and legions. Maybe it’s an indicator of a rift between aristocrats and the public. Thank goodness I choose to study Latin at school. There are four major forms of the Greek language. In the 1976 education act, demotiki was finally established as the language of education, while civil servants were trained how to use it in official documents. Demotic refers particularly to the form of the language that evolved naturally from Ancient Greek, in opposition to the artificially archaic Katharevousa, which was the official standard until 1976. As a adjective greek is (greek).As a noun greek is nonsense writing or talk; gibberish. Even in Greece most people have forgotten all about it. Katharevousa is a litarary language that is between (Demotic) Greek and Ancient Greek. You have another big success in front of you Nicholas! The Koine introduced pneumata, the little signs above vowels that indicate pronunciation, to standardize pronunciation of Greek among the many peoples who formed Alexander’s empire. The Greek language question (το γλωσσικό ζήτημα, to glossikó zítima) was a dispute about whether the language of the Greek people (Demotic Greek) or a cultivated imitation of Ancient Greek (katharevousa) should be the official language of the Greek nation. In 1956 the Institute for Modern Greek Studies was founded with the aim of promoting the survival and expansion of the pro-Demotiki ideology. Greek studies departments are being set up in countries such as Uzbekistan, Jordan and Tunisia. The matter was finally settled after the colonels' fall. It’s the one I’m personally more familiar with, among the three BC languages. It was thus that "Greek cultural leaders decided that the unity of the national language should be not only synchronic (geographical) but also diachronic (historical)". A typical example is the army and the clergy, who use specific words and acronyms. It was used officially until 1976, is still used in churches, and is a good Springboard to Ancient Greek. , Actually, it’s more common a mistake than you might think. Thank you, Philip , I thoroughly enjoyed the history of this Nicholas! Thanks for liking it – and thanks in advance for sharing! Curious, though – is the internet having an effect on Greek as it is on many other languages? I’ve been honored with your choice to let me read Runaway Smile early on and I can vouch for its delightful story and the utterly sweet ending. Speaking in flawless idiomatic Greek on April 13 at the Cotsen Hall of the Gennadeios library, belonging to the prestigious American School of Classical Studies in Athens, professor Mackridge gave a lecture entitled Katharevousa, Demotic and Greek National Identity from the 18th Century to the 1976 Language Reform. I’ll just say, enjoy the torrent of compliments coming your way , Aw, thank you so much!! The unified Greek of today retains all the contributions of katharevousa to the language but keeps the form and the grammar close to the spoken form. I’d never heard that there was any friction betwee the two Greek languages. A computer, for instance, became ypologistí in Standard Modern Greek, a router dromologití, and a printer an ektypotís (unless you mean the profession, which is a typographos ). Notify me of follow-up comments by email. When you leave a comment, WordPress stores information like your name, email etc. Because you’re absolutely right – I, too, mentioned the Koine (aka Hellenistic) in my reply to him. n. The puristic, archaizing form of Modern Greek, having morphological and lexical features borrowed from Koine. ", http://www.helleniccomserve.com./contents.html. Korais and the rest of the so-called archaists solved this conundrum by creating a hybrid language called Katharevousa (“Clean”). At the same time, Greek was spoken differently in various parts of the country. Katharevousa is a see also of greek. It’s great that you know so much about our language, Mihran! Re the “you’re welcome” bit (ambiguous meanings for phrases), my French professor retired after my freshman year in college and I worked hard at corresponding with him in French. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Greek is a highly inflected language and belongs to the Indo-European family of languages. sa (kä′thä-rĕv′o͞o-sä′) n. The puristic, archaizing form of Modern Greek, having morphological and lexical features borrowed from Koine. , Hi Nicholas, In it he argued that unless Greece became a modern nation rooted in contemporary reality instead of indulging in ancestor worship she would never be able to free the Greeks from still living under Ottoman rule. I wanted to wish him well, so I wrote “Bonne fortune!” He wrote back that that phrase meant “do well financially” and what I should have said was “Bonne chance!” (good luck! Korais and the rest of the so-called archaists solved this conundrum by creating a hybrid language called Katharevousa (“Clean”). Katharevousa (Greek: Καθαρεύουσα, pronounced [kaθaˈrevusa], literally "purifying [language]") is a conservative form of the Modern Greek language conceived in the late 18th century as a compromise between Ancient Greek and the Demotic Greek of the time. And an android. Legally displaced in Greece in 1976 by Demotic Greek. Wow, high praise indeed. A list recently compiled by the Greek education ministry shows that 344 university-level 'Greek studies' courses are operating on five continents with more than half (179) in Europe. Thus ended an over-a-century linguistic war that saw quite a few casualties – and I mean this in the most literal sense. Ever since the Roman captain, who arrested him some 19 centuries ago, asked St Paul in, wonderment "cans't thou speak Greek?" Smart. Find link is a tool written by Edward Betts.. searching for Demotic Greek 30 found (140 total) alternate case: demotic Greek Emmanuel Kriaras (528 words) exact match in snippet view article find links to article He was a student of Jean Psychari and the practice and ideology of demotic Greek.Kriaras was born in Piraeus in Attica, Greece in 1906 and spent his Use of the Demotic dialect in state speech and paperwork was forbidden. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! That’s awesome! But Finnish and Hungarian are from a different group (not provably related to Greek) and Turkish even more so, though all have borrowed from one another over the centuries. This militant scholar of the Greek Enlightenment believed fervently that the mother tongue of the Greeks had been corrupted by the many Turkish, Italian and Slav accretions that had been infesting it for centuries. You are right; Homeric Greek is hard even for me to understand. (Acts 21 :37), knowledge of this language - the only one in Europe that has been spoken uninterruptedly in the same area for more than three millennia ­has been considered with a certain awe all over the world. Reply. Thanks for the comment and welcome! ''The topic of my lecture," he said, "is also the subject of a book that I am preparing, entitled Language and National Identity in Greece since the 18th Century. I can’t wait to read this! Of course, Germanic languages are cousins to Greek as well (also Persian and Indian and Slavic languages — which latter also borrowed a lot from Greek — and a bunch more). He pointed out in his 13 April 2006 lecture: ''The antithesis... is clear from various metaphors that were used to refer to the language. Demotic refers particularly to the form of the language that evolved naturally from Ancient Greek, in opposition to the artificially archaic Katharevousa, which was the official standard until 1976. Even today, Cretan Greek has marked differences from, say, Corfiot Greek. The language had changed even more in the years leading to Alexander’s Hellenistic period, when Greek picked a number of words used in Alexander’s empire. Georgios Mistriotis regularly referred to katharevousa in 1908 as a bastion resisting external invasions and an anchor holding Greece steady, thus using metaphors of immobility, while the demoticists depicted the Greeks as thinking freely, dynamic and eager for action. I’m amazed at how many times I could have sworn I’ve read something, only to read something quite different afterwards. . As a verb greek is (computing) to display a placeholder instead of text, especially to optimize speed in displaying text that would be too small to read. Korais created, for instance, the word politismos for civilisation, while famelia became oikogeneia (family), kontrabando became lathremporio, ministros became ypourgos and so forth. SMG today incorporates many katharevousa elements. Even today, Cretan Greek has marked differences from, say, Corfiot Greek. Demotic refers particularly to the form of the language that evolved naturally from ancient Greek, in opposition to the artificially archaic Katharevousa, which was the official standard until 1976. Sorry! Fascinating information, thanks! And the Byzantine era had further changed Greek. The best I’ve ever read. Modern Greek; New Greek You will probably enjoy this post: https://www.cracked.com/article_17123_the-5-most-retarded-wars-ever-fought.html , with its list of five weird excuses for going to war. There is also renewed interest in the way Modem Greek has evolved after Greece became a nation state in 1830. Georgios Mistriotis regularly referred to katharevousa in 1908 as a bastion resisting external invasions and an anchor holding Greece steady, thus using metaphors of immobility, while the demoticists depicted the Greeks as thinking freely, dynamic and eager for action. In Katharevousa Greek it's Hellas as well, and people generally may use Hellas or Ellas as well in Demotic Greek. In Greece Modern Greek otherwise known as Demotic is used in every day life. Did you just add the ‘hi’ or was I being very stupid?! Having won literature over to their side, the demoticists went on, especially from the first decade of the twentieth century onwards, to demand that katharevousa be abolished altogether. Tensions ebbed and flowed throughout the 20th century. I have no doubt that you will. Any links? What a succinct explanation of the two Greek forms. The koine of the New Testament and early common era is clearly different from Classical (the move from second year to third was even worse that first (Classical) to second (Homeric)) and seems markedly different from either modern form or the stuff that ciruclated for a millennium in the Byzatine world. Aharoni, Lol – and if you check out John Clifford’s and my comment, you’ll realize it’s actually five languages… , Thanks! 12. Also, some dates for anyone not familiar with these: Homeric Greek is circa 9th century BC; Classical Greek is the Athenian Greek of 5th century BC; Hellenistic Greek was ca. However, a number of other scholars rebelled against Katharevousa and supported Demotiki (from “Demos,” or community – ie the language of the community). Incidentally, this post came to be because of a question my editor had regarding the correct usage of a common Greek name (hi, Lorelei). But the language itself had changed significantly through the ages: 9th-century BC Homeric Greek was quite different from the 5th-century language Pericles used. I didn’t know any of this history. "Greeks," as professor Mackridge summarised psycharis' position, "should be expelling Turks from Greek lands rather than expelling Turkish words from the Greek language. It also introduced periods and capitalization, thus making it easier to learn the language. "Katharevousa was not so much a language," professor Mackridge explained, "as a tendency, a process, a purifying mechanism that expunged many non-Greek features from the language and enriched it with thousands of newly coined words based on Ancient Greek. The most dificcult in the understanding and the comprehension are the Homeric. Katharevusa Greek language, Greek Katharevousa, a “purist” variety of modern Greek, which until 1976 was the official written language of Greece. If you want an honest answer - Katherevousa is useful when it comes to going to a Greek Orthodox Church or in a Greek Court Of Law or reading and study specific academia.. otherwise it’s use is quite limited. On this basis, professor Mackridge concluded, "the Modern Greeks would resemble the ancient Athenians. He's hot. Detective Mika Pensive has a new partner. ), Ah, the pitfalls of automatic translation… I have a scheduled post that deals with that subject, which I think you will enjoy . What a fascinating history for a language! I was thinking of you when I was writing it, and your fascinating posts on Irish history and mythology. Yes, it’s not exactly common knowledge, even in Greece. What is perhaps less known is that Modem Greek - the only language directly spawned from ancient Greek unlike the many romance languages deriving from Latin - is actually undergoing a kind of mini-renaissance. By doing so, they gained an important ally: the Greek Orthodox Church. There was nothing inevitable about Katharevousa being abandoned. ". And I can’t help but feel proud seeing so many of your readers appreciating the extra insight into the history of Greek language. The prestige of Korais had certainly something to do with this. Biggus Dickus (from Life of Brian) comes to mind… . This was one of those little known (outside of Greece, obviously) historical items that I love to learn. Who said man only fights for religion or freedom…something as simple as language can trigger fierce passion! A learned, archaising form of Modern Greek, the artificial Greek language based on Classical Greek, used for formal and official purposes, primarily written but not used for conversation. They arbitrarily chose the language of the Hellenistic period as a point of reference, probably because this was the language the Gospels were written in, therefore people were more familiar with it. Demotic Greek or Dimotiki is a term used in contrast with Katharevousa to describe the colloquial vernacular form of Modern Greek which had evolved naturally from Koine Greek and was spoken by the vast majority of Greeks in Greece during the time of diglossia in the modern Greek state from the time of its founding in 1821 until the resolution of the Greek language question in 1976. Lol! 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