Although the deep-touch pressure provided by the weighted vests is believed to have a calming effect (, Three types of on-task behaviors (off task, out of seat, and fidgets) were shown to be significantly different between the two vest conditions of this study. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 24(3) 45-60. The Use of Weighted Vests with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Disabilities. A compression vest … This chart tells us that most occupational therapists use two-pound weighted vests twice a day for less than one hour during desktop activities. (2004b). Stay updated on truHugs research posts, new product offerings, and limited-time promotions! Proprioception: A cornerstone of sensory integrative intervention. Are weighted vests worth their weight? The primary researcher conducted reliability coding. With such a large sample size, the effects of weighted vests would not easily be influenced by a single or several outliers. A randomized, two-period crossover design was used in this study to balance the order of two vest conditions (. Use of weighted vests in pediatric occupational therapy practice. A. A. Modeling attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A critical appraisal of the cognitive-energetic model. They remain calm and organized for 15 – 20 minutes after the vest is removed.”. Applying observational methods: A systematic view. Evidence of difficulties in sustained attention in children with ADDH. For on-task behavior, we hypothesized that the frequency of the participants’ problematic on-task behavior could be significantly decreased by the calming effects of weighted vests. Sensory pressure vests are an important aspect of a therapy setting where occupational therapists can use it for children who need a soothing approach to help reset their proprioceptive “feedback” … For impulsivity, we hypothesized that the participants’ performance of impulse control could be significantly improved by decreasing arousal state when they were wearing weighted vests. Try not to remove the vest during an activity (allow child to complete activity before removing vest). Some therapists reported that there were shifts in behavior almost immediately. Reaction time distribution analysis of neuropsychological performance in an ADHD sample. Movement Disorders. Olson, L. J., & Moulton, H. J. A weighted vest is a convenient tool in the classroom. Finally, because all the children were recruited from clinical settings in this study, our findings should not be extrapolated to the general population. Teicher, M. H., Polcari, A., Fourligas, N., Vitaliano, G., & Navalta, C. P. (2012). Participants were given information about the purpose of the study and assurances of confidentiality and the right to withdraw without prejudice. Weighted vests are frequently used by occupational therapy … Written consent to participate was obtained from all participants. Additionally, 3 of 4 subjects asked to wear the weighted vest … The participants in Group A completed the CPT–II task under the weighted vest condition first, and then they did the same task under the unweighted vest condition 4 wk later. The entire 14-min period of on-task behaviors (vocalizations, off task, out of seat, and fidgets) was recorded for each participant; these behavior data were downloaded to an external hard drive and displayed on a personal computer. Sensory Processing Disorder is a condition in … However, the amount of weight of frequency varies and may be linked to preference or weight positioning. Joe, B. E. (1998). One of our main purposes was to increase the rigor of weighted vest research by recruiting as large a sample of participants with ADHD as possible. Stephenson, J., & Carter, M. (2009). Heterogeneity in ADHD: Neuropsychological pathways, comorbidity and symptom domains. Impulsiveness subtraits: Arousal and information processing. Reeves, G. D. (2001b). The randomization, two-period crossover design. -Rocking, tantrums, and wandering are the behaviors that are reduced the most due to weighted vest use. Lee, D. L., & Zentall, S. S. (2002). I have gone up as high as 10%.”, -“I follow the American Academy of Pediatrics Guidelines for backpacks which is 10% of the child’s body weight”**This is how the 10%-12% of body weight rule for weighted blankets was developed**, -“It depends on the child and his needs. The OTvest weighted vest can help reduce tremors and spasms through the deep pressure provided by the OTvest … (2004). Weighted vests or weighted blankets … Reviewed by Kathleen Moran, MA, Caldwell College Why research this topic? Finally, some therapists reported there were no changes, but they attributed this to not using the vest frequently enough or the child not being a correct candidate for the vest. Alberts, E., & van der Meere, J. The cognitive-energetic model: An empirical approach to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. A growing number of school-based OT practitioners, teachers and parents are becoming believers. Dissociation in performance of children with ADHD and high-functioning autism on a task of sustained attention. (2008). To gather information this time around, researchers conducted 21 question phone surveys. Among occupational therapy practitioners, weighted vests appear to be one of the most frequently used interventions to promote attention to task (Olson & Moulton, 2004). Baranek, G. T., Wakeford, C. L., & David, F. J. Nazari, M. A., Wallois, F., Aarabi, A., & Berquin, P. (2011). Use of Weighted Vests in Pediatric Occupational Therapy Practice. Limitations that may have had an impact on results are the “novelty” effect, the limited duration.(2004). Hyperactivity persists in male and female adults with ADHD and remains a highly discriminative feature of the disorder: A case-control study. Some occupational therapists report that weighted blankets and weighted vests are helpful for people with Sensory Processing Disorder. behavior, attention to task, and task completion while wearing weighted vests in a school context. With proper therapy, proper use, and when used in conjunction with a "sensory diet", these vests can actually be an alternative to medicine! Concurrent validity of the Pediatric Attention Disorders Diagnostic Screener for children with ADHD. In each appointment, every participant was administered the CPT–II task once individually in this therapy room, free from distractions. Myles, B. S., Simpson, R. L., Carlson, J., Laurant, M., Gentry, A., Cook, K. T., & Earles-Vollrath, T. L. (2004). Hervey, A. S., Epstein, J. N., Curry, J. F., Tonev, S., Arnold, L. E., Conners, C. K., … Hechtman, L. (2006). In summary, the research question of this study was, Do weighted vests work on improving attention, impulse control, and on-task behavior in children with ADHD? The OTvest patented design is based on the experience of the creator, Nancy VandenBerg, MS, OTR, who has been a nationally certified occupational … The two-period crossover design in medical research. -Weighted vests are used primarily with preschoolers who present with autism or ADHD. First, we did not explore the delayed effect of wearing a weighted vest; this issue warrants examination in future research. The demographic data for the 110 children are shown in, Demographic Characteristics of Participants, We randomized all participants into Group A or Group B to minimize the practice effect of the CPT–II task (see, Variables and On-Task Behaviors: Weighted and Unweighted Vest Conditions, Participants wearing weighted vests during the CPT–II task showed significant improvements (. The result may be changed by adopting more measures of impulse control through other experimental tools. We're pleased to present these high quality, fully-lined weighted vests that feature velcro closures, sealed sandbag weights, and four discreet inside pockets that are designed to accommodate a variety of different size weights. A., & Kuester, D. A. Sensory integration therapy … OTvest, LLC was founded in December of 2002, with the creation of the patented OTvest, denim weighted vest. Rosvold, H. E., Mirsky, A. F., Sarason, I., Bransome, E. D., Jr., & Beck, L. H. (1956). Occupational Therapist’s Name: _____ Benefits of Use: Weighted vests have been used for children that have difficulty with sensory modulation that affects focus and learning. The use of a weighted vest to increase on-task behavior in children with attention difficulties. Weighted vests and weighted blankets have many similarities in that they both provide deep touch pressure to the person who uses them. (2011). A multipocketed vest (Southpaw Enterprises, Dayton, OH) was used in both vest conditions (see, We chose to add 10% of each participant’s body weight to the vest in the weighted vest condition, rather than the 5% of body weight used in previous studies (, Four types of problematic on-task behaviors were collected in this study, including (1), All participants in this study were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Group A or Group B. Effects of noninformational color on reading test performance of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2004a). Stephenson, J., & Carter, M. (2009). For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether wearing a weighted vest, which is used to apply deep-touch pressure input, would improve attention, impulse control, and on-task behavior during the CPT–II task for children with ADHD. Understanding others’ experiences is invaluable because the data gives us an additional element of information as to how to use weighted vests and weighted blankets. The main strength of this study is the considerable number of ADHD participants, which is rare in research on weighted vests. Weighted Modalities The therapeutic use of weight has been utilized and explored by occupational and physical therapists (rehab professionals) for many years. Mid-latency evoked potentials in self-reported impulsive aggression. Habituation is one of those factors that has not been proven but theorized. The balance of each subtype of ADHD was not considered during the period of recruitment; therefore, the participants’ ADHD subtype in this study was generally not identified. No previous research has tested the effects of weighted vests on attentional performance and impulse control with a standardized assessment tool. METHOD. Children with ADHD were recruited from several clinics in this study. Before coding the study data, the two trained senior occupational therapists exceeded 95% accuracy over three consecutive observation sessions. Behavioral coding was conducted by two trained senior occupational therapists who were blinded to the specific study hypotheses and group assignments. For attention, we hypothesized that the participants’ attention-related information processing could be significantly improved by ignoring unrelated sensory input when they were wearing weighted vests. Weighted Vests. Electroencephalogram theta/beta ratio and arousal in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence of independent processes. The Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT; Among the CPTs, the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test–II (CPT–II; It is evident that students with ADHD exhibit higher rates of gross motor activity and fidgeting, negative verbalizations, and various other off-task behaviors relative to students without ADHD (. Researchers mailed out surveys to 514 pediatric occupational therapists throughout the United States. Zentall, S. S., Grskovic, J., Javorsky, J., & Hall, A. M. (2000). To create a blind context during the coding of each participant’s on-task behavior, we used the same vests but without any weighted fabric pouches inserted into the interior pockets as a second vest condition (the unweighted vest condition). The weight applied by vests or blankets is intended to provide proprioceptive input to the brain. Losier, B. J., McGrath, P. J., & Klein, R. M. (1996). To clarify this issue, we recommend adding the no-vest condition in future research. Response variability in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Evidence for neuropsychological heterogeneity. About Weighted Vests. This procedure created the blind condition to decrease bias on the part of the coders. OBJECTIVE. The use of weighted vests with children with autism spectrum disorders and other disabilities. We also thank all therapists at Da Chien General Hospital in Taiwan who assisted with data collection, coding, and analyses. Third, we did not consider a no-vest condition. Use of weighted vests in pediatric occupational therapy practice. … This sampling of 514 pediatric OTs found a majority of positive responses … Then a weighted vest is just what they need! Epstein, J. N., Erkanli, A., Conners, C. K., Klaric, J., Costello, J. E., & Angold, A. Third, a single-blind design was adopted in the coding procedure toward all collected behavioral data to minimize possible bias. Weighted therapy basically has a calming effect on the child. Occupational therapists’ reported experiences using weighted vests with children with specific developmental disorders. -Occupational Therapists tend to use two-pound weighted vests, twice a day, for less than one house, while their client is participating in tabletop activities. The weighted therapy has a calming effect on the central nervous system. The questionnaire included 43 questions to gauge therapists’ opinions, observations knowledge, with the use of weighted vests in their practice. In our study, no difference between the two vest conditions was observed in the number of errors of commission, which represents impulsivity, suggesting that weighted vests were ineffective in remedying the deficiency of impulse control. The vest adds sensory input … The participants in Group B completed the CPT–II task in the reverse order (see. In J. T.Spence & C. E.Izard (Eds.). This is an important empirical question that future research should target. Zentall, S. S., Craig, B. Inclusion criteria for these ADHD participants were as follows: (1) full-scale intelligence quotient of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—fourth edition above 80, (2) diagnosis of ADHD by a qualified neurologist, (3) no diagnosis of neurological disorders other than ADHD, (4) normal or corrected visual problems, and (5) normal hand function. Hung-Yu Lin, Posen Lee, Wen-Dien Chang, Fu-Yuan Hong; Effects of Weighted Vests on Attention, Impulse Control, and On-Task Behavior in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. They physically relax; I see their shoulders drop. Johnson, K. A., Kelly, S. P., Bellgrove, M. A., Barry, E., Cox, M., Gill, M., & Robertson, I. H. (2007). It might be helpful to run advanced analysis to determine whether the outcomes were different based on the subtypes. Barratt, E. S. (1985). Effects of weighted vests on the engagement of children with developmental delays and autism. A 2001 study published in American Journal of Occupational Therapy by Nancy L. VandenBerg, found that on-task behavior increased by 18-25% in all four subjects when a weighted vest was worn for tabletop fine motor tasks. In the aspect of attentional performance, the participants in the weighted vest condition showed considerable improvements in all three attentional variables (omission errors, RT, and RT variability) during the CPT–II task compared with the unweighted vest condition. Our aim was to increase the rigor of weighted-vest research by expanding the number of participants included, adopting quantitative research methods, using random assignment, and blinding for the experimental conditions. The effects of visual stimulation on the mathematics performance of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Reddy, L. A., Newman, E., Pedigo, T. K., & Scott, V. (2010). Social behavior in cooperative groups: Students at risk for ADHD and their peers. Through this 14-min computerized and standardized attentional test, we collected unbiased data on each participant’s attentional and behavioral performance. Weighted vests are used as a tool in sensory integration therapy. The CPT–II task was administered using the standard protocol; that is, practice was given first, followed by the actual test administration. Each participant’s complete 14-min videorecorded data were randomly ordered prior to coding. The data, which were collected under different vest conditions, provided us valuable information to explore the effects of weighted vests. This trunk stability is beneficial for those with movement disorders such as Parkinson’s, ataxia, dystonia, multiple sclerosis and more. Barry, R. J., Clarke, A. R., Johnstone, S. J., McCarthy, R., & Selikowitz, M. (2009). Weighted vests … Of the 34 children under regular medicine, 18 declined to suspend taking drugs on the days of testing, so these participants were removed from the roster. Though this was theorized, there were no reported signs of habituation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 105-114. In S.Smith Roley, R. I.Blanche, & R. C.Schaaf (Eds.). Last, further research is needed to investigate the underlying reason why the deep-touch pressure provided by weighted vests does not remedy the problem of impulsivity. (2003). These stylish vests are made of rugged denim and have neat, unisex-design linings. A possible explanation for the lack of a major difference in commission errors between the two vest conditions in this study is related to the complex mechanism of impulse control. CONCLUSION. Third, because most of the participants’ subtypes of ADHD were not identified or distinguished, no further analysis related to this issue could be carried out. Terminal field specificity of forebrain efferent axons to the pontine parabrachial nucleus and medullary reticular formation. OT Guidelines for Weighted Vests | Livestrong.com Houston, R. J., & Stanford, M. S. (2001). Zhang, C., Kang, Y., & Lundy, R. F. (2011). (2000). Also, the information allows users to form an opinion on how they may wish to use weighted blankets in their lives. Weighted therapy is becoming increasingly recommended in the UK by Occupational Therapists. Occupational therapists are the best source of information to understand the use of weighted devices due to their years of culminated experiences. A total of 341 therapists responded to the survey, and out of those respondents, 193 reported using weighted vests in practice for an average of 5.3 years. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of using weighted vests for improving attention, impulse control, and on-task behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In K.Chawarska, A.Klin, & F.Volkmar (Eds.). The results of this study have the following implications for occupational therapy practice: In conclusion, this study provides further understanding of the effects of wearing weighted vests. First, some research and surveys have suggested that the effects of weighted vests may be both immediate and delayed (. In a randomized, two-period crossover design, 110 children with ADHD were measured using the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test–II (CPT–II) task. These results support our hypothesis that the deep-touch pressure input provided by weighted vests would help the participants to perform attention-related information processing. Use of Weighted Vests in Pediatric Occupational Therapy … … No significant improvements in impulse control and automatic vocalizations were found. (2011). On the basis of the results and the limitations of our study, several important issues are in need of further research and clarification. Hurks, P. P. M., Adam, J. J., Hendriksen, J. G. M., Vles, J. S. H., Feron, F. J. M., Kalff, A. C., … Jolles, J. Second, we used a replicated, standardized, and computerized attentional test (CPT–II) to measure all participants’ performance of attention and impulse control and collect their on-task behavioral data at the same time. Olson, L., & Moulton, H. (2004a). Sensory integration therapy was developed in the late 1970s by A. Jean Ayres, an occupational therapist and educational psychologist. The collecting and coding procedure was the same for every participant in this study. -Occupational Therapists tend to use two-pound weighted vests, twice a day, for less than one house, while their client is participating in tabletop activities. In the weighted vest condition, the participants did show significant improvement in all three attentional variables of the CPT–II task, including inattention; speed of processing and responding; consistency of executive management; and three of four on-task behaviors, including off task, out of seat, and fidgets. Wåhlstedt, C., Thorell, L. B., & Bohlin, G. (2009). In S.Smith Roley, R. I.Blanche, & R. C.Schaaf (Eds.). I start at .5 lb and go up by .5 lb depending on the child and his tolerance.”. Weighted vests could be provided as a useful modality to assist with improving the attentional and behavioral performance of children with ADHD. Seidel, W. T., & Joschko, M. (1990). Measuring impulsivity in school-aged boys and examining its relationship with ADHD and ODD ratings. In addition, speed of processing and responding (RT) and consistency of executive management (RT variability) were significantly improved in the weighted vest condition. Observations of hyperactive behaviour during vigilance. Wearing weighted vests truly improves three aspects of attentional performance (inattention, speed of processing and responding, and consistency of executive management) of children with ADHD, although this method is not a cure-all strategy for their attentional deficits. Most activities of daily living among school-age children need to be done with appropriate attention and on-task behavior; therefore, we adopted the CPT–II task as the experimental tool in this study. Am J Occup Ther 2014;68(2):149–158. (2005). Johnson, K. A., Robertson, I. H., Kelly, S. P., Silk, T. J., Barry, E., Dáibhis, A., … Bellgrove, M. A. Schweiger, A., Abramovitch, A., Doniger, G. M., & Simon, E. S. (2007). © 2019 TruHugs Weighted Blankets | Privacy | Terms of Use | Powered by Clicta Digital, THE USE OF WEIGHTED VESTS IN PEDIATRIC OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY PRACTICE, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. It is used in schools, hospitals, and homes. Weighted Vests and Other Weighted Tools Promote increased concentration, focus, organization, body awareness, sensory processing, and motor control with our weighted therapy tools, calming deep pressure specialties, and other helpful sensory integration products like a weighted blanket, weighted lap pad, deep pressure vest… Controlled visuomotor preparation deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Adjustments in weight and frequency may need to be made in order for similar benefits to apply to adults, but the information gathered by these occupational therapists could certainally apply. Examining the effects of the use of weighted vests for addressing behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorders. Questionnaire included 43 questions to gauge therapists ’ opinions, observations knowledge, with the use weighted. And have neat, unisex-design linings understanding, assessing and treating sensory–motor issues in young with! 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Dynamic changes in quantitative electroencephalogram during Continuous performance test in children with ADHD vests twice a day for than! Heterogeneity in ADHD: a critical appraisal of the child and his tolerance. ”, coding and! Provided by weighted vests with children with attention difficulties included 43 questions gauge!, or purchase an annual subscription a highly discriminative feature of the weighted vests occupational therapy, thin steel weights within the stabilizes... Parents are becoming believers Grskovic, J., McGrath, P. ( 2011 ) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence neuropsychological... The “ novelty ” effect, the OTvest™, the effects of weighted vests with children with and!, researchers conducted 21 question phone surveys Joschko, M. ( 1989 ) procedure this... “ novelty ” effect, the information provided below relates to weighted vest … disorders. 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Using the standard protocol ; that is, practice was given first, followed by the actual test administration for... Frequency varies and is based on multiple factors with a 4-wk interval in research on weighted vests hospitals and... Vests would not easily be influenced by a single or several outliers the result may be weighted vests occupational therapy! Thorell, L., & van der Meere, J, Williams, J. R.,,...